Salmonellosis is an infection with a bacteria called Salmonella.Salmonella
is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid
fever,paratyphoid fever, andfoodborne illness
A rare developmental birth defect characterized by abnormal gaps or clefts in
the cerebral hemispheres of the brain. Schizencephaly is thought to represent a
defect in neuronal migration.
Individuals with clefts in only one hemisphere (called unilateral clefts) are
often paralyzed on one side of the body, but may have average to near-average
intelligence. Babies with clefts in both hemispheres commonly have developmental
delays in speech and language skills, and problems with brain-spinal cord
communication. Some may also have an abnormally small head, mental retardation,
or partial or complete paralysis. Most will experience seizures. Some
individuals may have an excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain
A California study from 1985-2001 found a population prevalence of 1.54/100,000.
The same study found an association with young parental age and monozygotic
twins. One third of their cases also had a another abnormality such as
gastroschisis, bowel atresias, and amniotic band disruption sequence. Their
study suggests that schizencephaly has heterogeneous etiologies many of which
are vascular disruptive in origin .
1. Curry CJ et al. Schizencephaly: Heterogeneous etiologies in a population of 4
million California births. Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Aug 30;137(2):181-9. PMID:
2.Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). Johns Hopkins University,
Baltimore, MD. MIM Number:269160: 8/20/2008: . World Wide Web URL:
4. Granata T et al. Schizencephaly: clinical spectrum, epilepsy, and
pathogenesis.J Child Neurol. 2005 Apr;20(4):313-8. Review. PMID: 15921232
Serum iron (FE)
The amount of circulating iron that is bound to
An average head-to-body delivery
time more than 60 seconds, or more commonly defined as "a delivery that
requires additional obstetric maneuvers following failure of gentle downward
traction on the fetal head to effect delivery of the shoulders." Shoulder
dystocia is usually caused by the anterior shoulder becoming stuck behind
the mother's pubic bone. Shoulder dystocia less commonly occurs if the posterior
shoulder becomes wedged against the sacrum.
The incidence of shoulder dystocia is reported to be 0.6 to 1.4 percent.
A pregnancy with only one fetus in the uterus.
Small for gestational age (SGA)
Weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age. Most small for gestational
age fetuses are small because of constitutional factors such as female sex or
An image or images produced by collecting high frequency sound
waves reflected from structures inside the body.
An instrument used to hold the vagina open
Light vaginal bleeding.
The level of the presenting part in the birth canal in relation
to the ischial spines of the pelvis. The spines represent 0 station. The
presenting part is described as being from -1 to -5 cm above the spines or
+1 to+ 5 cm below the spines. A station of + 5 cm would correspond to the
presenting part at the vaginal opening (introitus).
Stress test (Contraction stress test,CST,
oxytocin contraction stress test)
A method of testing fetal well-being and in particular the function of the
placenta under stress. The study is performed by making a graphical recording of
the fetal heart rate using an electronic monitor.
The tracing is observed for
late decelerations. The test requires three contractions in 10 minutes to be
present with the contractions lasting 40 to 60 seconds. If uterine activity is
absent then oxytocin is infused or nipple stimulation is used to stimulate mild
contractions. The test is positive if late decelerations are consistent
and present with more than 50% of the contractions. The CST is equivocal or
suspicious if there are intermittent late decelerations
A positive CST has been has been associated
with an increased incidence of intrauterine death, late decelerations in labor,
low 5-minute Apgar scores, and intrauterine growth restriction.
A blood clot beneath the placenta.
A substance produced in the lungs that prevents the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs from collapsing and
sticking together by reducing surface tension.
1. Sutures (stitches) : Sterile, threadlike materials made of catgut, silk, or wire used by surgeons to
sew tissues together.
2. Sutures : The fibrous joints between the skull bones .