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Salmonellosis

Salmonellosis is an infection with a bacteria called Salmonella.Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever,paratyphoid fever, andfoodborne illness


Schizencephaly

 A rare developmental birth defect characterized by abnormal gaps or clefts in the cerebral hemispheres of the brain. Schizencephaly is thought to represent a defect in neuronal migration.

Individuals with clefts in only one hemisphere (called unilateral clefts) are often paralyzed on one side of the body, but may have average to near-average intelligence. Babies with clefts in both hemispheres commonly have developmental delays  in speech and language skills, and problems with brain-spinal cord communication. Some may also have an abnormally small head, mental retardation, or partial or complete paralysis. Most will experience seizures. Some individuals may have an excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus).

A California study from 1985-2001 found a population prevalence of 1.54/100,000. The same study found an association with young parental age and monozygotic twins. One third of their cases also had a another abnormality such as gastroschisis, bowel atresias, and amniotic band disruption sequence. Their study suggests that schizencephaly has heterogeneous etiologies many of which are vascular disruptive in origin [1].

1. Curry CJ et al. Schizencephaly: Heterogeneous etiologies in a population of 4 million California births. Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Aug 30;137(2):181-9. PMID: 16059942;
2.Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. MIM Number:269160: 8/20/2008: . World Wide Web URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=269160
3. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/schizencephaly/schizencephaly.htm
4. Granata T et al. Schizencephaly: clinical spectrum, epilepsy, and pathogenesis.J Child Neurol. 2005 Apr;20(4):313-8. Review.  PMID: 15921232


Serum iron (FE)

The amount of circulating iron that is bound to transferrin


Shoulder dystocia

An average  head-to-body delivery time more than  60 seconds, or more commonly defined as "a delivery that requires additional obstetric maneuvers following failure of gentle downward traction on the fetal head to effect delivery of the shoulders." Shoulder dystocia is usually caused by  the anterior shoulder becoming stuck behind the mother's pubic bone. Shoulder dystocia less commonly occurs if the posterior shoulder becomes wedged against the sacrum. The incidence of shoulder dystocia is reported to be 0.6 to 1.4 percent.


Singleton

A pregnancy with only one fetus in the uterus.


Small for gestational age (SGA)

Weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age. Most small for gestational age fetuses are small because of constitutional factors such as female sex or heredity.


Sonogram (Ultrasound)

An image or images produced by collecting high frequency sound waves reflected from structures inside the body.


Speculum

An instrument used to hold the vagina open

 


Spotting

Light vaginal bleeding.
 


Station

The level of the presenting part in the birth canal in relation to the ischial spines of the pelvis. The spines represent 0 station. The presenting part is described as being from -1 to  -5 cm above the spines or +1 to+ 5 cm below the spines. A station of + 5 cm would correspond to the presenting part at the vaginal opening (introitus).


Stillbirth (fetal death)


Stress test (Contraction stress test,CST, oxytocin contraction stress test)

A method of testing fetal well-being and in particular the function of the placenta under stress. The study is performed by making a graphical recording of the fetal heart rate using an electronic monitor. The tracing is observed for late decelerations. The test requires three contractions in 10 minutes to be present with the contractions lasting 40 to 60 seconds. If uterine activity is absent then oxytocin is infused or nipple stimulation is used to stimulate mild contractions.  The test is positive if late decelerations are consistent and present with more than 50% of the contractions. The CST is equivocal or suspicious if there are intermittent late decelerations

A positive CST has been has been associated with an increased incidence of intrauterine death, late decelerations in labor, low 5-minute Apgar scores, and intrauterine growth restriction.


Subchorionic hematoma

A blood clot beneath the placenta.


Succenturiate placenta

One or more accessory placental lobes connected  to the main placenta by blood vessels.
  There is an increased risk for postpartum hemorrhage and infection  due to retained placenta with a succenturiate placenta. Sometimes the blood vessels that connect the lobes of the placenta  cross over or near the opening of the cervix leaving the blood vessels vulnerable to rupture. This latter condition is called type II vasa previa
 


Surfactant

A substance produced in the lungs that prevents the tiny air sacs  (alveoli) in the lungs from collapsing and sticking together by reducing surface tension.


Sutures

1. Sutures (stitches) : Sterile, threadlike materials made of catgut, silk, or wire used by surgeons to sew tissues together.

2. Sutures : The fibrous joints between the skull bones .


 



 

   

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