The folds of skin at the opening of the vagina consisting of
large outer folds called the labia majora and inner folds called the labia
Laceration ( Tear )
A cut or tear in tissues. Spontaneous lacerations of the perineum (the
area between the vagina and anus) may occur as a result of childbirth. Perineal
lacerations are classified by degree.
Third degree: The laceration involves the perineal skin and/or vaginal mucosa, and extends through the underlying
fascia and muscles.The laceration involves the anal sphincter.
Fourth degree: The laceration involves the perineal skin and/or vaginal mucosa, and extends through the underlying fascia , muscles, and anal sphincter . The laceration extends through the
- First-degree: The laceration is limited to the perineal skin
and/or vaginal mucosa.
- Second degree: The laceration involves the perineal skin and/or vaginal mucosa, and extends through the underlying fascia and
muscles. It does not involve the rectal sphincter.
The production and excretion of milk by the breast.
Lamaze (Lamaze method)
A method of childbirth preparation using behavioral techniques to
reduce pain and anxiety in labor developed by the obstetrician Ferdinand Lamaze
The fine hair that covers the fetus.
A gradual decrease
in the fetal heart rate with onset of deceleration to nadir >30
seconds. The nadir of the deceleration occurs after the peak of the
Late decelerations are believed to be caused by low oxygen blood levels in the
fetus which causes constriction of peripheral blood vessels in order to
divert blood to vital organs. Constriction of peripheral blood vessels
leads to hypertension which stimulates a baroreceptor mediated
vagal response resulting in a decreased heart rate.
Any decrease in uterine blood flow or
placental dysfunction can cause late decelerations.
Narrowing of the frontal bones of the skull giving the fetal head the shape of
a lemon. Most commonly seen with Arnold-Chiair II
malformation and open spina bifida early in gestation.
The lemon sign is not specific for
open spina bifida and
may be seen in 1%
of normal fetuses.
4 specific steps in palpating the uterus through the abdomen in order to
determine the lie and presentation of the fetus.
The longitudinal axis of the fetus in relation to the mother's longitudinal axis
(i.e., longitudinal would be parallel to the mother).
An infection caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium
Listeria monocytogenes, L monocytogenes is a gram-positive, motile,
About one-third of listeriosis cases happen during pregnancy. Fetal infection
can occur via transplacental transmission. Infected pregnant women may experience only a mild, flu-like illness
with fever or stiff neck . Infections during pregnancy can lead to
miscarriage or stillbirth, premature delivery, or infection of the newborn.
The bacterium has been found in a variety of raw foods, such as uncooked
meats and vegetables, soft cheeses and and ice cream made with unpasteurized
cheese, deli meats, refrigerated pâtés or meat spreads.
L&D (L and D)
Labor and Delivery.
Lightening (dropping, engagement)
The descent of the presenting part of the fetus into the pelvis.
Last menstrual period. Refers to date of onset of
the last menstrual period.
|Left occiput anterior.
Describes the position of the fetal occiput as being to the left side of the
maternal birth canal (position) and anterior in relation to the mother's
Most sources define a low lying placenta as being present when the lower edge
of the placenta is within 2 centimeters (cm) of the internal cervical opening
but is not bordering it.
However, some investigators have proposed that the term placenta previa be
used for all placentas with the lower edge within 2 cm from the cervical opening
since such patients have been found to have a low chance of successful vaginal
delivery in some studies.
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Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved.
It has also been proposed that the term low lying placenta be used if the
placental edge is located farther than 2 cm but within 3.5 cm from the internal
cervical opening. Patients diagnosed with a low lying placenta using the latter
definition have a very good chance of having a successful vaginal delivery.
Patients with a low lying placenta appear to have an increased risk for vasa previa.
Green JR , Placenta previa and Abruptio Placenta In Resnik R, ed., Maternal-Fetal Medicine, 5th ed., pp.
Bhide A and Thilaganathan B. Recent advances in the management of placenta
previa.Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2004;16(6):447-51.
Dashe JS, eta al. Persistence of placenta previa according to gestational age at
ultrasound detection. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;99:692-7.