Bacterial vaginosis (BV)
Bag of waters
The membrane (amnion) surrounding the fetus and the amniotic
Curvature of the cerebellum (the part of the brain that controls
balance) around the midbrain giving the cerebellum the shape of a banana. Caused by Arnold-Chiari II malformation.
In 95% percent of cases the Arnold-Chiari II malformation is accompanied by hydrocephalus and myelomeningocele
(open spina bifida).
Basal Body Temperature
The body temperature measured in the morning
before moving about or eating after at least 6 hours of sleep.
Two separate single horn uterine bodies sharing one cervix.
The uterine tubes, uterus, and upper vagina are formed by fusion of the two paramesonephric (Müllerian) ducts
beginning at about 10 weeks gestation. Fusion of the ducts with resorption
of the uterine septum is usually completed by about 20 weeks' . Partial failure
of the ducts to unite results in two separate single horn uterine bodies sharing one cervix.
Bicornuate uterus is associated with increased risk for miscarriage,
presentation, and fetal growth restriction.
Bikini incision. See Pfannenstiel's
Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment produced from
the breakdown of hemoglobin the protein that carries
oxygen in the red blood cells). Bilirubin is
removed from the body largely by the liver. The liver of many newborns may not
be mature enough to remove bilirubin from the blood stream quickly enough. The
excess bilirubin may build up giving the the infant's skin and membranes a
yellow color a condition called jaundice.
Biophysical profile (BPP)
A prenatal test that uses the findings of the nonstress test (NST)
and activities of the baby during an ultrasound examination to check on the
well being of baby. A score of 2 is given for each component present. A score of 8 or greater is reassuring.
||Two or more fetal heart rate
accelerations of at least 15 beats/min and lasting at least 15 seconds during
20 minutes of observation
||No accelerations or less than two
accelerations of fetal heart rate in 20 minutes
||At least one episode of fetal breathing
lasting 30 seconds during a 30 minute period of observation. (Hiccups are
included as breathing activity)
||Less than 30 seconds of
fetal breathing movements in 30 min
||2 or more discrete gross body/limb
movements in 30 minutes, simultaneous limb and trunk movements
||Less than 2 gross body/limb
movements in 30 minutes
||At least one episode of motion of a limb from
position of flexion to extension and rapid return to flexion (opening
and closing of hand considered normal tone)
||Position of semi or full limb
extension with no return or slow return to flexion with
movement; absence of fetal movement
|Amniotic fluid volume
||At least 1 pocket of fluid that measures at
least 2 cm in two perpendicular planes
||Largest pocket of amniotic fluid
measures < 2 cm in two perpendicular planes
An assessment of the likelihood
of successful induction of labor. The Bishop score assigns points for cervical dilatation, effacement, consistency,
cervical position, and the
station of the presenting part. A Bishop's score of less than 6 indicates low
probability of successful induction. Other scoring
The rapidly dividing fertilized egg when it enters the
A fertilized egg that has failed to develop.
Passage of blood-tinged mucus from the vagina caused by loss
of the cervical mucous plug. Bloody show often precedes the onset of labor.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
body mass index (BMI) is a measure of someone's weight in relation to their
height. The BMI is used
to estimate the amount of body fat a person has. The BMI
is calculated either as:
in pounds / Height in inches 2 ) x 703
BMI = (Weight in kilograms /
Height in meters 2)
Short disproportionately wide head. Brachycephaly is seen with several
disorders including Down syndrome and syndromes associated with premature
closure of the coronal suture (Apert, Crouzon, Pfeiffer, Saethre-Chotzen and Carpenters).
Bradley Method (husband-coached birth)
A method of natural childbirth developed by Robert A. Bradley, M.D. (1917–98).
The Bradley method emphasizes education and relaxation techniques for pain
management. The method prepares the baby's father to be the mother's birth
coach, and prepares the mother to deliver without pain medication.
In a fetus a mean heart rate less than 110 beats per minute lasting for at
least two minutes. In an adult a sustained heart rate less than 60 beats per minute.
Braxton Hicks Contractions
Sporadic uterine contraction that do not increase in intensity and do not
result in childbirth, typically felt after 20 weeks. Named after John Braxton Hicks a British
gynecologist who first described these contractions in 1872.
The baby is in a sitting position with the buttocks, knees, or feet nearest
to the cervix.
Breech presentation occurs in 25 percent of pregnancies less than 28 weeks' and
1 to 3 percent of births at term. The three types of breech presentation are
frank breech (flexed at hips with extended knees-legs above buttocks), footling
breech (one or both hips extended-leg(s) extended below buttocks), and complete
breech (flexed hips and knees-no limbs extended).