Hydrocodone  in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
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Hydrocodone bitartrate  
Opioid analgesic, Antitussive.  Molecular weight: 494.5
CATEGORY: D if used for prolonged periods

A surveillance study of Michigan Medicaid recipients reported a greater than expected number of birth defects in 332 newborns after exposure to hydrocodone during the first trimester [1]. A preliminary report by Schick B et al. found no pattern of major malformations among 40 infants exposed during the first trimester to hydrocodone during first trimester [2]. 

Infants born to mothers who have been taking opioids regularly prior to delivery may be physically dependent and experience withdrawal signs during the neonatal period.

BREAST FEEDING: There is not enough published information to comment on the safety of hydrocodone during breast feeding. Consider using other agents.


1. Briggs GG,Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ, Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation 6th edition,Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins,2002 p 661

2. Schick B, et al. Preliminary analysis of first trimester exposure to oxycodone and hydrocodone.[ Abstract] Reprod Toxicol. 1996;10:162.


Created: 11/17/2000
Updated: 11/30/2002
Updated: 1/10/2005

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